World Journal of Anemia

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2018 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Clinical Evaluation of Different Types of Anemia

Sudha Chamoli

Keywords : Anemia, Hemoglobin, Iron deficiency, Mean cell hemoglobin concentration, Megaloblastic, Pallor

Citation Information : Chamoli S. Clinical Evaluation of Different Types of Anemia. World J Anemia 2018; 2 (1):26-30.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10065-0024

License: CC BY-ND 3.0

Published Online: 01-03-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Anemia, defined as a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below the mean for age, is prevalent among infants and children as well as adults worldwide. The evaluation of an individual with anemia should begin with a thorough history and risk assessment. Characterizing the anemia as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic based on the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) will aid in the work-up and management. Microcytic anemia due to iron deficiency is the most common type of anemia in children. Iron deficiency anemia, which can be associated with cognitive issues, is prevented and treated with iron supplements or increased intake of dietary iron. This review article discusses the clinical evaluation of different types of anemias based on the findings of clinical examination (i.e., pallor, pedal edema, nail changes, and epithelial changes) as well as the results of various investigations such as routine blood investigations (hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration [MCHC], packed cell volume, etc.), peripheral smear examination, bone marrow examination, etc. Management options for various types of anemia are different and have been briefly discussed in this article.


PDF Share
  1. King, TC. Hematopoietic pathology. In: Elsevier's integrated pathology. Philadelphia (PA): Mosby Elsevier; 2007. pp. 263-289.
  2. WHO. Prevalence and diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia: a guide for program manager. Vol. 52. Geneva: WHO, UNICEF;2001. pp. 447-501.
  3. World Health Organization. Iron deficiency anaemia: assessment, prevention and control: a guide for programme managers. Vol. 36. Geneva: WHO, UNICEF, UNU; 2001. pp. 314-362.
  4. Luzzatto, L. Hemolytic anemias and anemia due to acute blood loss. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 19th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2015. pp. 649-662.
  5. Beutler E, West C. Hematologic differences between African- Americans and whites: the roles of iron deficiency and alphathalassemia on hemoglobin levels and mean corpuscular volume. Blood 2005 Jul;106(2):740-745.
  6. Lee, GR. Pernicious anemia and other causes of vitamin B12 cobalamin deficiency. In: Lee GR, Foerster J, Lukens J, Paraskevas F, Greer JP, Rodgers GM, Baron JM, editors. Wintrobe's clinical hematology. 10th ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1999. pp. 942-978.
  7. Young NS, Abkowitz JL, Luzzatto L. New insights into the pathophysiology of acquired cytopenias. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2000 Feb;1:18-38.
  8. Jimenez K, Kulnigg-Dabsch S, Gasche C. Management of iron deficiency anemia. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 2015 Apr;11(4):241-250.
  9. Aslinia F, Mazza JJ, Yale SH. Megaloblastic anemia and other causes of macrocytosis. Clin Med Res 2006 Sep;4(3):236-241.
  10. Padhi S, Glen J, Pordes BA, Thomas ME; Guideline Development Group. Management of anaemia in chronic kidney disease: summary of updated NICE guidance. BMJ 2015 Jun;350:h2258.
  11. Dezern AE, Brodsky RA. Clinical management of aplastic anemia. Expert Rev Hematol 2011 Apr;4(2):221-230.
  12. Weiss G. Pathogenesis and treatment of anaemia of chronic disease. Blood Rev 2002 Jun;16(2):87-96.
  13. Hara A, Furuichi K, Higuchi M, Iwata Y, Sakai N, Kaneko S, Wada T. Autoantibodies to erythropoietin receptor in patients with immune mediated diseases: relationship to anemia with erythroid hypoplasia. Br J Hematol 2013 Jan;160(2):244-250.
  14. Yaddanapudi S, Yaddanapudi LN. Indications for blood and blood product transfusion. Indian J Anaesth 2014 Sep- Oct;58(5):538-542.
  15. Bamberg R. Occurrence and detection of iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers. Clin Lab Sci 2009 Winter;22(1):2.
  16. Monajemzadeh SM, Zarkesh MR. Iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 12-15 months in Ahwaz, Iran. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2009 Apr-Jun;52(2):182-184.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.