Hemolytic anemia caused by blood group incompatibility is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which is also termed as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis, occurs due to destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) of the fetus or neonate by maternal immunoglobulin G antibodies. Under the conditions of anemia, the fetal bone marrow initiates production of immature erythroblasts into the fetal peripheral circulation, resulting in various manifestations of erythroblastosis fetalis, including conditions, such as hydrops fetalis, icterus gravis neonatorum, and congenital anemia of the newborn. Different approaches are being employed for the treatment of fetal anemia, such as intrauterine blood transfusion and exchange transfusion that takes place after birth. Recently, use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has also been considered for the management of jaundice in newborns associated with hemolytic diseases.
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