World Journal of Anemia

Register      Login

VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2017 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Malaria: A Cause of Anemia and Its Effect on Pregnancy

Prabhjot Kaur, Arun Bhatia, Kanav Midha, Mampi Debnath

Citation Information : Kaur P, Bhatia A, Midha K, Debnath M. Malaria: A Cause of Anemia and Its Effect on Pregnancy. World J Anemia 2017; 1 (2):51-62.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10065-0012

License: CC BY 3.0

Published Online: 01-06-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

How to cite this article

Saxena R, Bhatia A, Midha K, Debnath M, Kaur P. Malaria: A Cause of Anemia and Its Effect on Pregnancy. World J Anemia. 2017;1(2):51-62.


  1. World malaria report. Geneva: World Health Organization Publication; 2015.
  2. Severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children from three regions and three ethnic groups in Cameroon: prospective study. Malar J 2012 Jun;11:215.
  3. Malaria and helminth co-infection in children living in a malaria endemic setting of mount Cameroon and predictors of anemia. J Parasitol 2006 Dec;92(6):1191-1195.
  4. A longitudinal study on anaemia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infection in the Mount Cameroon region: prevalence, risk factors and perceptions by caregivers. BMC Infect Dis 2013 Mar;13:123.
  5. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts. Br J Haematol 2011 Sep;154(6):690-695.
  6. Factors contributing to anemia after uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001 Nov;65(5):614-622.
  7. Retention of erythrocytes in the spleen: a double-edged process in human malaria. Curr Opin Hematol 2009 May;16(3):157-164.
  8. The importance of anaemia in cerebral and uncomplicated falciparum malaria: role of complications, dyserythropoiesis and iron sequestration. Q J Med 1986 Mar;58(227):305-323.
  9. The international limits and population at risk of Plasmodium vivax transmission in 2009. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 Aug;4(8):e774.
  10. Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002 Oct;15(4):564-594.
  11. Plasmodium vivax: who cares? Malar J 2008 Dec;7(Suppl 1):S9.
  12. Vivax malaria: neglected and not benign. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007 Dec;77(6 Suppl):79-87.
  13. Artemisinin combination therapy for vivax malaria. Lancet Infect Dis 2010 Jun;10(6):405-416.
  14. Plasmodium vivax in Africa: hidden in plain sight? Trends Parasitol 2007 May;23(5):193-196.
  15. The neglected burden of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001 Jan-Feb;64(1-2 Suppl):97-106.
  16. Mapping the global extent of malaria in 2005. Trends Parasitol 2006 Aug;22(8):353-358.
  17. Plasmodium vivax blood-stage dynamics. J Parasitol 2002 Jun;88(3):521-535.
  18. World malaria report. Geneva: WHO; 2011. [cited 2017 Nov]. Available from: http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2011/9789241564403_eng.pdf.
  19. The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. Lancet Infect Dis 2004 Jun;4(6):327-336.
  20. Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission. Lancet Infect Dis 2008 Jun;8(6):369-378.
  21. Malarial anaemia: mechanisms and implications of insufficient erythropoiesis during blood-stage malaria. Int J Parasitol 2004 Dec;34(13-14):1501-1516.
  22. Erythroblastic islands: niches for erythropoiesis. Blood 2008 Aug;112(3):470-478.
  23. Interleukin-12 and malaria. Res Immunol 1995 Sep-Oct;146(7-8):552-559.
  24. IL-12-induced protection against blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi AS requires IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and occurs via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Immunol J 1995 Sep;155(5):2545-2556.
  25. Human malarial disease: a consequence of inflammatory cytokine release. Malar J 2006 Oct;5:85.
  26. Tumor necrosis factor and disease severity in children with falciparum malaria. N Engl Med J 1989 Jun;320(24):1586-1591.
  27. TNF concentration in fatal cerebral, non-fatal cerebral, and uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet 1990 Nov;336(8725):1201-1204.
  28. Elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 serum levels as markers for complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am Med J 1989 Aug;87(2):139-143.
  29. Tumour necrosis factor production in Falciparum malaria and its association with schizont rupture. Clin Exp Immunol 1989 Sep;77(3):361-366.
  30. TNF and Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced cerebral malaria. Immunol Lett 1990 Aug;25(1-3):195-198.
  31. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: a counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action and critical mediator of septic shock. Inflamm J 1995-1996;47(1-2):39-51.
  32. TNF-alpha up-regulates renal MIF expression in rat crescentic glomerulonephritis. Mol Med 1997 Feb;3(2):136-144.
  33. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro by nitric oxide derivatives. Infect Immun 1991 Sep;59(9):3280-3283.
  34. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes sustained cyclooxygenase-2 expression: attenuation by dexamethasone and NSAIDs. Prostaglandins 1997 Oct;54(4):727-743.
  35. A phase I trial of recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rTNF) administered by continuous intravenous infusion in patients with disseminated malignancy. Biotherapy 1989 Sep;1(3):207-214.
  36. Prediction of accelerated cure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria by the elevated capacity of tumor necrosis factor production. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1995 Nov;53(5):532-538.
  37. Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-12(p70) in Malian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and matched uncomplicated malaria or healthy controls. Infect Immun 2004 Oct;72(10):5630-5637.
  38. Reduced interleukin-12 and transforming growth factor-beta1 in severe childhood malaria: relationship of cytokine balance with disease severity. J Infect Dis 2000 Sep;182(3):988-992.
  39. Prolonged macrophage activation and persistent anaemia in children with complicated malaria. Trop Med Int Health 1998 Jan;3(1):60-65.
  40. The pathophysiology of falciparum malaria. Pharmacol Ther 2003 Aug;99(2):221-260.
  41. Iron chelation therapy for malaria: a review. Pharmacol Ther 1999 Jan;81(1):53-75.
  42. Iron, anemia and hepcidin in malaria. Front Pharmacol 2014 May;5:125.
  43. The ins, outs and roundabouts of malaria. Trends Parasitol 2003 May;19(5):209-213.
  44. Severe anemia in Malawian children. N Engl J Med 2008 Feb;358(9):888-899.
  45. ; Abdalla, S. Anemia. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical infectious diseases: principles, pathogens, and practice. Philadelphia (PA): Churchill Livingstone; 1999. pp. 1551-1564.
  46. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
  47. UK malaria treatment guidelines. J Infect 2007 Feb;54(2):111-121.
  48. ; Strickland, GT. Malaria. In: Hunter GW, Strickland GT, editors. Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Saunders; 2000. pp. 614-643.
  49. Morphology and kinetics of the three distinct phases of red blood cell invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Int J Parasitol 2009 Jan;39(1):91-96.
  50. The hydration state of human red blood cells and their susceptibility to invasion by Plasmodium falciparum. Blood 2005 Jun;105(12):4853-4860.
  51. Blackwater fever in southern Vietnam: a prospective descriptive study of 50 cases. Clin Infect Dis 1996 Dec;23(6):1274-1281.
  52. Recurrence of blackwater fever: triggering of relapses by different antimalarials. Trop Med Int Health 1998 Aug;3(8):632-639.
  53. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of blackwater fever among African children suffering frequent malaria attacks. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003 Mar-Apr;97(2):193-197.
  54. Resurgence of blackwater fever in long-term European expatriates in Africa: report of 21 cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 2001 Apr;32(8):1133-1140.
  55. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial. Lancet 2010 Nov;376(9753):1647-1657.
  56. The treatment of complicated and severe malaria. Br Med Bull 2006 Feb;75-76:29-47.
  57. Malaria and the red cell. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2002;35-57.
  58. Malarial anemia: of mice and men. Blood 2007 Jul;110(1):18-28.
  59. Malaria and anemia. Curr Opin Hematol 2003 Mar;10(2):108-114.
  60. Blood transfusion For severe anaemia in African children. Lancet 1992 Oct;340(8824):917-918.
  61. Response to volume resuscitation in children with severe anaemia. Paedtr Crit Care Med 2003 Oct;4(4):426-431.
  62. Severe falciparum malaria. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 2000 Apr;94(Suppl 1):S1-S90.
  63. Assessment of volume depletion in children with malaria. PLoS Med 2004 Oct;1(1):e18-e20.
  64. Epidemiological study of seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen and HIV 1 in blood donors. Niger J Clin Pract 1999;2:42-45.
  65. Transfusion associated graft vs host disease. N Eng J Med 1990 Aug;323(5):315-321.
  66. Childhood anaemia in Africa: to transfuse or not transfuse. Acta Trop 1993 Oct;5(1-2):47-51.
  67. Management of severe malarial anaemia in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1997 Sep-Oct;91(5):557-561.
  68. Blood transfusion for treating malarial anaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD001475.
  69. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria. 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO; 2015. [cited 2017 Nov]. Available from: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241549127/en/.
  70. Intramuscular artemether vs intravenous quinine: an open randomized trial in Malawian children with cerebral malaria. Trop Med Int Health 1998 Jan;3(1):3-8.
  71. Artemether in moderately severe and cerebral malaria in Nigerian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994 Jun;88(Suppl 1):S13-S15.
  72. Comparison of intramuscular artemether and intravenous quinine in the treatment of Sudanese children with severe falciparum malaria. East Afr Med J 2002 Dec;79(12):621-625.
  73. Clinical review: severe malaria. Crit Care 2003 Aug;7(4):315-323.
  74. Antimalarial drugs in pregnancy: a review. Curr Drug Saf 2006 Jan;1(1):1-15.
  75. A preliminary investigation of fetal deaths following quinine induction. J Obstet Gynecol 1929 Jun;36(2):352-366.
  76. Treatment of uncomplicated multidrug resistant falciparum malaria with artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil. Clin Infect Dis 2002 Dec;35(12):1498-1504.
  77. Preventing malaria in pregnancy. Green-top Guideline No. 54A. London: RCOG; 2010.
  78. Population pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine in pregnant women treated with artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009 Sep;53(9):3837-3846.
  79. Riamet 20/120 mg tablets. Summary of Product Characteristics. Electronic Medicines Compendium. England: Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd; 2009. [cited 2016 Nov]. Available from: http://www.emc.medicines.org.uk/medicine/9196/SPC/Riamet+20+120mg+tablets/#pregnancy.
  80. The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in pregnancy. Greentop Guideline No. 54B. London: RCOG; 2010.
  81. Plasmodium falciparum infection and pregnancy. Case reports. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 1989 Apr-Jun;22(2):99-101.
  82. Randomized trial of artesunate and mefloquine in comparison with quinine sulfate to treat P. falciparum malaria pregnant women. J Med Assoc Thai 2001 Sep;84(9):1289-1289.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.